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Low-Fidelity Prototyping
Short-Term Study
User Attendance

Wizard of Oz

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  • Description

    The Wizard of Oz technique enables users to interact with a low-cost and non-functional prototype. A "wizard" observes the interaction of users with the prototype in a back room and simulates the system responses in real time.

    Short Instruction

    1. Create a low-cost and non-functional prototype for the simulation

    2. Develop a test plan

    3. Ask the participants to simulate the usage of the prototype

    4. Assign a researcher as a "wizard" who hides in a back room, observes user interactions, and simulates system responses in real time

    5. Take notes on how people perform during the interaction process

    6. Conduct a feedback session with participants to understand their system experiences


    1. Dahlbaeck, N., Joensson, A., and Ahrenberg, L. 1993. "Wizard of Oz - why and how," Knowledge-Based Systems, (6:4), p. 1983.

    2. Li, Y., Hong, J., and Landay, J. 2007. "Design Challenges and Principles for Wizard of Oz Testing of Location- Enhanced Applications," IEEE Pervasive Computing, (6:2), pp. 70?C75 (doi: 10.1109/MPRV.2007.28).




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    Prototype Evaluation Mid-Term Duration